Archive for June, 2016


NEW BOOK Release

Red Sea Geothermal Provinces

D. Chandrasekharam, Aref Lashin, Nassir Al Arifi, Abdulaziz M Al-Bassam

“Today, over two billion people in developing countries live without any electricity. They lead lives of misery, walking miles every day for water and firewood, just to survive. What if there was an existing, viable technology, that when developed to its highest potential could increase everyone’s standard of living, cut fossil fuel demand and the resultant pollution Said Peter Meisen, President, Global Energy Network Institute in 1997. After 7 years the situation remained the same. In the annual meetings held in 2004, the World Bank President said “We must give higher priority to renewable energy. New and clean technologies can allow the poor to achieve the benefits of development without having to face the same environmental costs the developed world has experienced” World Bank President, Annual Meeting, 2004. Even after four years the situation has not changed in the rural sector of the developing countries. 90% of world population living in rural areas in developing countries have no access to basic needs like nutrition, warmth and light in spite of the fact that technologies for developing renewable energies jumped leaps and bounds and this is especially so with respect to geothermal.
This is especially true with respect to the countries around the Red Sea. It is very interesting to observe that geothermal resources are available in the countries rich in oil and gas resources and in those countries that have no oil and gas resources. Those countries that have rich geothermal resources like Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen, depend on imported fossil fuels to support their energy demand instead of developing naturally available geothermal resources. Thus their economic growth lies outside their country’s boundaries. Nasically some one else dictates your economic growth. These countries have no energy independence and energy security. Besides energy, these countries face acute shortage of fresh water because these countries receive scanty rainfall. Thus these countries have no food security as well. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia has surplus oil and gas resources and are not aware of the vast geothermal resources existing within the Saudi Arabian shield. Among the countries around the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia emits 4 billion tonnes of CO2 per year. Because Saudi Arabia has surplus fossil fuel reserves, the country is generating fresh water through desalination to support the demand from domestic and agricultural sectors at the cost of emitting about 13 Mt of CO2. This country is already experiencing change of weather pattern and increase in ambient temperature. Due to fresh water stress status, the country has adopted a policy to stop wheat production from 2016 onwards there by putting the country’s food security in other countries. This is a matter of serious concern. Thus rich poor countries have energy assets that have not been utilized and both countries have one common problem…….fresh water for the millions!! All the countries around the Red Sea have excellent hydrothermal and EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems) sources that can be developed. Technology to generate electricity from both the sources is matured and available off the shelf. Unlike other renewables, geothermal energy can supply base load power and > 90% online. In addition to power, this energy can support green house cultivation, dehydration of agricultural products. The most significant contribution that geothermal energy can make in these countries is to generate fresh water to meet the growing demand from domestic and agricultural sectors. Countries can be energy independent and can have food security and support the development of the rural region. In the next century these countries can become energy and water surplus countries and support other neighbouring countries to elevate the socio-economic status of the rural population. The book starts with an over look on the carbon intensity index under 6D 4D and 2D scenarios the world is currently debating and highlights the levalized cost of electricity generated by a variety of renewable energy sources like solar pv, wind, biomass and geothermal. The facts are open for anyone to judge the credibility of geothermal. All good things come with a premium so does geothermal! The most important message the authors make to the world community in the beginning is that energy and water dictates the future of any country……rich or poor.
Electricity markets, future electricity demand GDP growth and population in the countries around the Red Sea verses the global electricity demand, especially the OECD countries is discussed in Chapter Two. The statement made by Pierre Gadonneix in 2006 very true. Fossil fuels and renewables have grown together and will do so in future. At least till 2040 these energy sources will not cross their paths. This parallel growth is a sign and a ray hope, to see light at the end of this CO2 tunnel.
Over sixty nine percent of CO2 is emitted by the energy source we use……fossil fuels. It is very obvious that we will cross the 2 D thresh-hold very soon if we do not realize how much CO2 we are emitting. Poor countries are emitting since they feel that they have no option and rich countries…..out of ignorance. But both have a single option to control CO2 emission and preserve the world for our future generation. All countries should honour its commitments in controlling CO2 emissions. Chapter three unfolds the CO2 facts of all the countries around the Red Sea and its contribution to the global climate change.
“Geothermal is 100 per cent indigenous, environmentally-friendly and a technology that has been under-utilized for too long”. This statement made by Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General and UNEP Executive Director, at the UN climate convention conference in Poland in 2008 is absolutely true especially with respect to the countries described in this book. Chapter four unfolds the evolution of the geothermal systems in these countries in relation to the geology and tectonics and gives in depth knowledge about the quantum of energy resources that is awaiting to be explored and exploited. Estimates of electricity that can be generated from the existing hydrothermal systems is highlighted. Chapters three and four unfolds strategies that the countries can adopt and modify its energy policies to give better life to its future generations.
The International Energy Agency in 2014 brought out five key actions to achieve low carbon energy sector. Strong policies are required to decarbonize electricity sector. CO2 reduction strategies the countries can adopt, in the light of the debate that is being held between CoP 21 currently, without sacrificing socio-economic growth are focused in Chapter five……………………………………………10 Chapters and 222 pages. So much information on those countries and their geothermal potential. For more information read on CRC press website.