Author Archive for Prof D Chandrasekharam

04
Oct
20

Carbon Dioxide Emissions

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/carbon-neutrality-carbon-dioxide-emissions-carbon-dioxide-removal/

09
Sep
20

Coal is the king

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/can-the-world-survive-without-coal/ .

09
Sep
20

West Africa Food security

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/west-africa-how-to-be-free-from-food-slavery/

06
Jul
20

post covid 19 education

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/post-covid-19-education-system/

08
Mar
20

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/mesopotamian-barter-system-and-food-security/

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/mesopotamian-barter-system-and-food-security/

11
Feb
20

Water resources-VWT and India

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/dornadula-c/water-policy-and-virtual-water-trade-what-india-should-do/

09
Nov
19

Global hunger

Read it on the following link

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/dornadula-c/global-hunger-index-food-security-and-food-wastage-what-the-aiding-institutions-should-be-doing-to-remove-hunger/

17
Sep
19

Act now and avert a climate crisis

EDITORIAL 

 15 SEPTEMBER 2019

Act now and avert a climate crisis

Nature joins more than 250 media outlets in Covering Climate Now, a unique collaboration to focus attention on the need for urgent action.

………….””One of our articles reveals how countries are progressing towards their obligations under the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Sadly, greenhouse-gas emissions continue to climb, even as nations pledge to make substantial reductions. The one glimmer of hope is that energy from renewable sources is now growing faster than that supplied by fossil fuels. However, fossil-fuelled power continues to rise at a rapid rate, and its share of the global energy supply far eclipses that of renewables.””

Carbon free renewable energy that can support baseload electricity supply is geothermal. This is a fact that all of us should accept. We should also accept that solar pv is not a solution to mitigate CO2 emissions. To manufacture solar cell a large quantity of quartz needs to be processed from metallurgical grade to electrical grade. Both the processes are highly energy intensive. By the time solar pv cell emerges it has already emitted sufficient quantity of CO2 to the atmosphere. Solar  is not a glimmer of hope to battle carbon dioxide emissions and control global temperature rise. The more one promotes solar pv the more CO2 is emitted. Added to this is the storage batteries. Li or Cd batteries. These two are not a commodities that are freely available in nature that the battery companies can buy. These two elements have to be extracted from minerals and purified to suit battery standards. This process is again energy intensive. This energy has to come from fossil fuels only. The last phase……disposing solar waste. Wake up and think wisely and don’t be under the cloud that solar pv is a clean energy. Now the data is open and available to everyone on this earth. Sit back and calculate the CO2 emissions from the life cycle of solar pv cell. Apparently greenhouse gas emissions continue to climb. A business guy always masks this fact so that his business flourishes. But science is business for scientists. Act now and avert climate crisis.

03
Sep
19

What these countries discuss during the Conference of Parties ??

CoP 14 is going begin in India today (2 Sept. 2019) and will last for week. The parties will take stock of what has been discussed at Ordos, China…….The theme for the CoP 14 is combat desertification. Integration of sustainable development goal 14. The decision read like “” “Integration of Sustainable Development Goal 15 and target 15.3 into the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and land degradation neutrality 27. Background: By its decision 3/COP.13 and recalling decision 3/COP.12, the COP invited Parties that formulate voluntary targets to achieve land degradation neutrality (LDN) to ensure that their LDN targets and the activities to achieve these targets are directly linked to their national Sustainable Development Goal agendas and create leverage and synergies with their countries’ climate and biodiversity agendas. Furthermore, the Parties are invited to use the monitoring and evaluation approach adopted in decision 7/COP.13, including the progress indicators therein, and, as needed, add additional indicators to monitor, evaluate and communicate progress towards achieving the LDN target. 28. The same decision invited all Parties and multilateral and bilateral partners to scale up and facilitate effective financing for combating desertification/land degradation……………………” “ By its decision 3/COP.13, paragraph 3, all Parties are further invited to enhance the implementation of the Convention and Sustainable Development Goals by: (a) fostering national-level synergies among the three Rio conventions; (b) strengthening national-level coordination and cooperation among those responsible for addressing DLDD, socioeconomic development, finance, food and water security, agriculture, environment, etc., as appropriate; (c) seeking to leverage the cross-cutting benefits of sustainable land management (SLM) in national-level policies and programmes relating to poverty reduction, food and water security, agriculture, environment, finance, etc., as appropriate; and (d) engaging all relevant stakeholders………………………

All such meetings end with recording the minutes and open new agenda for the next meeting. What action is being taken is any ones guess. Ground realities are different from discussions in cosy comfortable conference rooms.

Reality: Take for example Djibouti & Eretria. Djibouti, except for the town, the rest of the land is desert. People live below poverty in the rural area. (Chandrasekharam D. et al. 2019.  Geothermal energy for desalination to secure food security: case study in Djibouti. Energy, Sustainab. Society, 9, 24-30. doi.org/10.1186/s13705-019-0206-3; Chandrasekharam, D. 2018. Energy and Food security through desalination using geothermal energy: Eritrea. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 11:523 doi. 10.1007/s12517-018-3892-9.). No water, electricity and food. What CoP should discuss is to pump funds to develop the geothermal energy in Djibouti and Eritrea and provide energy to the rural population. ). Solutions do exists. Attitude of the countries providing financial aid should be positive. There is no reason why these resources could not be developed? Technology exists. Europe, Iceland USA …..what are these countries doing?? Read the above papers to find solution to the energy-food- water problems.  If desertification has to be stopped, then make use of the existing energy sources (free and environmentally green and sustainable). This will give positive results before the next CoP.

19
Jul
19

FAO 2019 report on food security

With growing population, increase in stress to live in rural areas, population in urban areas has grown steadily. Although technology has grown exponentially during the last decade, this has not impacted on food production, food security, poverty eradication. The technology remained in the urban areas with elite section enjoying the fruits leaving the poor in the rural areas to become poorer. This imbalance has caused major shift the way food is grown, distributed and consumed worldwide. Food security and poverty eradication are still catch phrases for the economically affluent countries. No one, concerned governments or the world financial institution,  is tackling these issues at grassroots level. 2 billion people in the world experience moderate or severe food insecurity. The lack of regular access to nutritious and sufficient food that these people experience puts them at greater risk of malnutrition and poor health.  It is unbelievable when this report says “moderate or severe food insecurity also affects 8 percent of the population in Northern America and Europe. If this is so, how about countries like Djibouti, Eritrea and Ethiopia!! No one think about these countries even though these countries have enormous energy sources in the form of geothermal energy!! ( read 1) Chandrasekharam., et al. 2019.  Geothermal energy for desalination to secure food security: case study in Djibouti. Energy, Sustainab. Society, 9, 24-30. doi.org/10.1186/s13705-019-0206-3  and  2) Chandrasekharam, et al., 2018 Energy and Food security through desalination using geothermal energy: Eritrea. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 11:523 doi. 10.1007/s12517-018-3892-9.)

“”     Climate change and increasing climate variability and extremes are affecting agricultural productivity, food production and natural resources, with impacts on food systems and rural livelihoods, including a decline in the number of farmers. All of this has led to major shifts in the way in which food is produced, distributed and consumed worldwide – and to new food security, nutrition and health challenges“”  says a report recently published (2019) by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019.Safeguarding against economic slowdowns and downturns.  )..

Setting targets to tackle such issues have no meaning when sincere attempts are not made to reach sustainable development goals (SDG).

“Our actions to tackle these troubling trends will have to be bolder, not only in scale but also in terms of multi-sectoral collaboration, involving the agriculture, food, health, water and sanitation, education, and other relevant sectors; and in different policy domains, including social protection, development planning and economic policy “ says the report. It absolutely true to the word. But are these financial institutions doing this when addressing these issues in economically downtrodden countries like Djibouti and Eritrea! One cannot blame the world economy in solving trivial issues like developing a natural resource that can provide succour to the millions in these countries.

“This will require accelerated and aligned actions from all stakeholders and countries, including tireless and more integrated support from the United Nations and the international community to countries in support of their development priorities, through multilateral agreements and means of implementation, so that countries can embark on a pro-poor and inclusive path to transformation in a people-centred way to free the world from poverty, inequalities, hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition in all its forms” says the report. This is the absolute truth!!

According to FAO water, energy and food security nexus are necessary for the benefit of human well-being, poverty reduction and sustainable development. No one denies it.  

“Water management for agriculture is a multidisciplinary study that cuts across science, technology and administration. This cross-discipline knowledge provides methods and technologies suitable to provide food security to countries like Djibouti that are living under the cloud of poverty for decades. Such countries are at the mercy of natural precipitation to support agriculture or heavily depend on virtual water trade for sustenance. With the increasing in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and consequent climate change, such countries are worst affected due to vagaries of monsoon. In spite of such hardships, Djibouti can mitigate adversities of monsoon and droughts using geothermal energy resources that is available in plenty. Rural population can improve their lifestyle, live above the poverty line and improve their socio-economic status. The local governments also should play an important role in advising the funding institutions to develop geothermal power projects to support agricultural activity and create employment to the rural population.” Says a report recently published (Geothermal energy for desalination to secure food security: case study in Djibouti. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 9, 24-30. doi.org/10.1186/s13705-019-0206-3). Energy from geothermal sources is sustainable, and the desalination and power plants will operate for a long time (assuming a minimum life of 20–30 years for geothermal power plants). The primary target for financial institutions should be to develop these geothermal sites, and energy from these sites will put the country back on its development track”.